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Literature Review and Resources


The below list of literature covers a vast scope of relevant information on audience engagement and community development. The initial list was prepared for TCG by AMS Planning & Research, as part of the multi-year Audience (R)Evolution project; this list is not exhaustive and will continue to evolve. Please email us at AudienceRev@tcg.org if you'd like to suggest materials or resources that should be added to this list.


Brown, Alan. Initiators and Responders: Leveraging Social Context to Build Audiences.
Knight Foundation Issues Brief Series. WolfBrown, Summer 2004.

Brown, Alan, and Rebecca Ratzkin. Making Sense of Audience Engagement.
The San Francisco Foundation, 2011.

Brown, Alan, and Rebecca Ratzkin. Understanding the Intrinsic Impact of Live Theatre: Patterns of Audience Feedback Across 18 Theatres and 58 Productions.
WolfBrown, 2012.

Brown, Alan S., and Jennifer L. Novak-Leonard. Engaging Dance Audiences: Summary Assessment of Grantees’ Engagement Practices.
WolfBrown, October 2011.

Brown, Alan S., and Jennifer L. Novak-Leonard. Getting In On the Act: How Arts Groups Are Creating Opportunities for Active Participation.
The James Irvine Foundation, October 2011.

Callahan, Suzanne. Dance/USA's Engaging Dance Audiences Overview of Project Idea Submissions.
Callahan Consulting for the Arts, 2009.

Harlow, Bob, Thomas Alfieri, Aaron Dalton, and Anne Field. Attracting an Elusive Audience: How the San Francisco Girls Chorus Is Breaking Down Stereotypes and Generating Interest Among Classical Music Patrons.
Wallace Studies in Building Arts Audiences. The Wallace Foundation, 2011.

Harlow, Bob, Thomas Alfieri, Aaron Dalton, and Anne Field. Building Deeper Relationships: How Steppenwolf Theatre Company Is Turning Single-Ticket Buyers Into Repeat Visitors.
Wallace Studies in Building Arts Audiences. The Wallace Foundation, 2011.

Harlow, Bob, Thomas Alfieri, Aaron Dalton, and Anne Field. Cultivating The Next Generation of Art Lovers: How Boston Lyric Opera Sought to Create Greater Opportunities for Families to Attend Opera.
Wallace Studies in Building Arts Audiences. The Wallace Foundation, 2011.

Harlow, Bob, Thomas Alfieri, Aaron Dalton, and Anne Field. More Than Just a Party: How the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Boosted Participation by Young Adults.
Wallace Studies in Building Arts Audiences. The Wallace Foundation, 2011.

Ivey, William, and Steven J. Tepper, eds. Engaging Art: The Next Great Transformation of America's Cultural Life.
New York: Routledge, 2008.

Lord, Clayton, ed. Counting New Beans: Intrinsic Impact and the Value of Art.
Theatre Bay Area, 2012.

McCarthy, Kevin F., and Kimberly Jinnett. A New Framework for Building Participation in the Arts.
RAND Corporation, 2001.

McCarthy, Kevin F., Elizabeth H. Ondaatje, Laura Zakaras, and Arthur Brooks. Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate About the Benefits of the Arts.
RAND Corporation, 2004.

Ostrower, Francie. Motivations Matter: Findings and Practical Implications of a National Survey of Cultural Participation.
The Urban Institute, November 2005.

Ostrower, Francie. Partnernships Between Large and Small Cultural Organizations: A Strategy for Building Arts Participation.
The Urban Institute, 2004.

Parker, Susan. Building Arts Organizations That Build Audiences: A Wallace Foundation Conference.
The Wallace Foundation, March 2012.

Sherwood, Kay E.  Engaging Audiences: Strategies for Expanding Arts Audiences.
The Wallace Foundation, August 2009.

Topos Partnership. The Arts Ripple Effect: A Research-Based Strategy to Build Shared Responsibility for the Arts.
Fine Arts Fund, 2010.

TRG Arts. Paid Patronage in Philadelphia: Migratory Trends and Growth Factors, A Patron Behavior Study.
Greater Philadelphia Culture Alliance, September 21, 2009.

Walker, Chris. Arts & Culture: Community Connections, Contributions from New Survey Research.
The Urban Institute, 2002.

Walker, Chris, and Stephanie Scott-Melnyk. Reggae to Rachmaninoff: How and Why People Participate in Arts and Culture.
The Urban Institute, November 2002.

WolfBrown. Audience Impact Study: Literature Review.
National Endowment for the Arts, October 2011.

Zakaras, Laura, and Julia F. Lowell. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy.
2008.

2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts.
National Endowment for the Arts, November 2009.

Arts for All: Connecting to New Audiences.
The Wallace Foundation, August 2008.

Lead or Follow: An Arts Journal Discussion Blog.
January 2012.

Research Into Action: Pathways to New Opportunities.
Accessed May 10, 2012.